Here`s a look at what the Paris Agreement does, how it works, and how important it is to our future. Adaptation – measures to combat the effects of climate change – will be much more important under the Paris Agreement than before under the UNFCCC. Just as the Parties will submit mitigation contributions, the Agreement requires all Parties to plan and implement adaptation efforts “where necessary” and encourages all Parties to report on their adaptation efforts and/or needs. The agreement also provides for a review of progress on adaptation and the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation support as part of the global stocktaking, to be carried out every five years. In agreements adopted in Copenhagen in 2009 and Cancún in 2010, governments set a goal of keeping global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The Paris Agreement reaffirms the 2 degree target and urges efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The agreement also sets two other long-term reduction targets: first, a peak in emissions as soon as possible (recognising that this will take longer for developing countries); Then a goal of net neutrality in greenhouse gases (“a balance between anthropogenic emissions from sources and removals from sinks”) in the second half of the century. On June 1, 2017, President Trump announced his intention to withdraw the United States from the agreement. In response, other Governments strongly reaffirmed their commitment to the agreement. U.S.
cities, states, and other nonstate actors have also reaffirmed their support for the agreement and pledged to step up their climate efforts. The United States officially began its withdrawal from the agreement on November 4, 2019; the revocation took effect on November 4, 2020. President-elect Biden has promised to join the Paris Agreement as soon as he takes office. The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was until 2012. This year, delegates at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (excluding some developed countries that had withdrawn). They also reaffirmed their 2011 commitment at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, to create a new comprehensive climate agreement by 2015 that would commit all major emitters not covered by the Kyoto Protocol – such as China, India and the United States – to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – the future Paris Agreement – is expected to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris Agreement entered into force earlier than planned, in November 2016. As explained in this C2ES thematic letter, U.S. participation in the Paris Agreement can only be decided by the President, without, among other things, seeking the advice and consent of the Senate, as it drafts an existing treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. If Biden is president, he would have ample power to join him as an “executive deal.” Many countries have indicated in their INDCs that they intend to use some form of international emissions trading to implement their contributions.
To ensure the environmental integrity of these transactions, the agreement requires the parties to follow accounting practices that avoid double counting of “internationally transferred mitigation results.” In addition, the agreement introduces a new mechanism that contributes to containment and support for sustainable development and could generate or certify tradable emission units, depending on its design. Following the conclusion of COP 21 (21st session of the Conference of the Parties presiding over the Conference) on 12 September. In December 2015, the final text of the Paris Agreement was agreed by all 195 Member States participating in the UNFCCC and the European Union to reduce emissions as part of the greenhouse gas reduction methodology. In the 12-page agreement, members pledged to reduce their carbon emissions “as quickly as possible” and to do their best to keep global warming “well below 2°C” [3.6°F].  When the agreement reached enough signatures on October 5, 2016 to cross the threshold, US President Barack Obama said: “Even if we achieve all the goals. We will only reach part of where we need to go. He also said that “this agreement will help delay or avoid some of the worst consequences of climate change. It will help other countries reduce their emissions over time and set bolder targets as technology advances, all within a robust transparency system that allows each country to assess the progress of all other nations.   Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.
 He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing to do, only to promise” and believes that only a general tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  Developed countries have committed, under the UNFCCC, to support mitigation and adaptation efforts in developing countries. .